ВИЧ

ВИЧ – это не смертельный приговор, при наличии лечения это хроническое состояние.

 

ВИЧ – это вирус иммунодефицита человека. Вирус атакует способность организма справляться с болезнями и вызывает СПИД. Это медленный процесс, и у людей, живущих с ВИЧ, симптомы могут не проявляться более десяти лет. СПИД – это синдром приобретенного иммунодефицита.
СПИД развивается только на финальных стадиях ВИЧ, после того как иммунная система становится неспособна защитить себя от инородного вторжения, например, от бактерий и вирусов. При отсутствии лечения СПИД может привести к смерти.

HIV is transmitted through the following bodily fluids:

  • Blood
  • Pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum)
  • Semen
  • Breast Milk
  • Vaginal fluids
  • Anal mucous

HIV is transmitted through the following bodily fluids:

  • Blood
  • Pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum)
  • Semen
  • Breast Milk
  • Vaginal fluids
  • Anal mucous

When you have sex with someone who is HIV-positive (infected with HIV) the virus can enter your system through small tears in your vagina, anus, penis or – rarely – your mouth. Open sores caused by sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) such as herpes and syphilis can make it easier for HIV to enter your system.

If you are an injection drug-user, HIV can be transmitted when your blood comes into contact with another person’s blood through sharing needles. HIV can pass from mother to child while a woman is pregnant or through breast milk. In rare cases, healthcare workers have come into contact with body fluids and become infected. Effective screening has made HIV infection via blood transfusion or organ donation extremely rare

HIV is NOT transmitted through the following bodily:

  • Saliva
  • Vomit
  • Feces
  • Nasal fluid
  • Tears
  • Sweat
  • Urine

There is no cure or vaccine for HIV. However, HIV is treatable and preventable.

Here’s how you can minimize your risk for infection:

Use condoms: If you are sexually active, always use a condom during vaginal and anal intercourse. Condoms are highly effective in preventing HIV transmission.

Use clean needles: If you inject drugs, use new, sterile needles.

Discuss sexual histories: Knowing the HIV status of your partner or partners will enable you to take steps to prevent transmission, like using condoms. About 25% of people in the U.S. who are infected don’t know it. Get tested together

Have sober sex: If you are drinking or taking drugs, you are less likely to practice safer sex and use condoms. If you feel like you may have a drug or alcohol, seek help.

Get tested for other STDs: Having a sexually-transmitted disease (STD)—such as Chlamydia, gonorrhea or syphilis—can increase your risk of getting infected with HIV. Many STDs do not have obvious symptoms. Get tested for free in your area.

Abstain or have fewer partners: Having fewer sexual partners will decrease your risk for contracting HIV or other STDs.

The symptoms may vary depending on the stage of HIV infection. Many don’t report feeling ill.

Many people with HIV do not experience any systems until the late stages of the disease. In fact, the virus can live in your body for as many as 10 years – or more – without causing any obvious symptoms. Extreme fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever and wasting syndrome can be some of the symptoms experienced at the late stages –when the disease has progressed to AIDS. These symptoms are most often caused by the opportunistic infections that a weakened immune system has been unable to fight off.

n the first 2 weeks to 30 days after infection—when higher levels of the virus are in a person’s system and he or she is most infectious (or, able to pass the virus on to others)—some may experience severe flu-like symptoms. It’s important to remember that not everyone who gets infected experiences these symptoms.

While HIV infection is a serious disease, it is important to remember that it is very treatable. Many people with HIV and AIDS live long, healthy, productive lives. HIV is no longer a “death sentence.” Since 1995, there have been medications known as anti-retroviral treatment that effectively combat the disease. In fact, the treatment is so effective that some who regularly and consistently take their medications do not even have a detectable level of virus in their system. If you are HIV-positive, there is hope and there is help.

HIV is treated using a combination of medicines to fight HIV infection. This is called antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART isn’t a cure, but it can control the virus so that you can live a long, healthy life. ART involves taking a combination of HIV medicines (called an HIV regimen) every day, exactly as prescribed. These HIV medicines prevent HIV from multiplying (making copies of itself), which reduces the amount of HIV in your body. Having close to no HIV in your body gives your immune system a chance to recover and fight off infections. When you have reached this stage, you have an undetectable viral load.
ART is recommended for all people with HIV, regardless of how long they’ve had the virus or how healthy they are. If left untreated, HIV will attack the immune system and eventually progress to AIDS. If treated, HIV is not a mortal disease anymore and people can enjoy healthy and long life.

При наличии ВИЧ-положительного статуса вы можете родить здорового ребенка. В случае постановки диагноза во время беременности следует начать лечение как можно раньше. Если вы уже получаете лечение, то необходимо продолжать свое лечение регулярно. Плацента защищает вашего неродившегося ребенка от заражения ВИЧ. Роды и грудное вскармливание потенциально представляют собой риск вертикальной трансмиссии (передачи ВИЧ от матери ребенку). Тем не менее, если вирус супрессирован и неопределяем, риск существенно снижается.
Если вирусная нагрузка не определяется, то можно рожать естественным путем (вагинально). Если на момент зачатия ваша вирусная нагрузка (еще) не определяемая, то, возможно, вам будет рекомендовано кесарево сечение. После рождения в течение 4 недель ваш малыш будет получать постконтактную профилактику (PEP – post exposure prophylaxis), чтобы уменьшить риск возможного заражения ВИЧ, а также будет протестирован на ВИЧ. Важно детально обсудить со своим врачом каждый шаг этого процесса.