HIV

HIV pole surmahaigus, õige raviga on see krooniline haigus

 

HIV tähendab inimese immuunpuudulikkuse viirust (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). Viirus ründab organismi võimet haigustele vastu panna ja põhjustab AIDS-i. See on aeglane protsess ja HIV-iga elavatel inimestel ei pruugi kauem kui kümme aastat mingeid sümptomeid olla.
AIDS tähendab omandatud immuunpuudulikkuse sündroomi (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Inimesel tekib AIDS alles HIV-i lõppjärgus, kui immuunsüsteem ei suuda ennast enam sissetungijate, näiteks bakterite ja viiruste vastu kaitsta. Ravimata AIDS võib lõppeda surmaga.

HIV is transmitted through the following bodily fluids:

  • Blood
  • Pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum)
  • Semen
  • Breast Milk
  • Vaginal fluids
  • Anal mucous

HIV is transmitted through the following bodily fluids:

  • Blood
  • Pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum)
  • Semen
  • Breast Milk
  • Vaginal fluids
  • Anal mucous

When you have sex with someone who is HIV-positive (infected with HIV) the virus can enter your system through small tears in your vagina, anus, penis or – rarely – your mouth. Open sores caused by sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) such as herpes and syphilis can make it easier for HIV to enter your system.

If you are an injection drug-user, HIV can be transmitted when your blood comes into contact with another person’s blood through sharing needles. HIV can pass from mother to child while a woman is pregnant or through breast milk. In rare cases, healthcare workers have come into contact with body fluids and become infected. Effective screening has made HIV infection via blood transfusion or organ donation extremely rare

HIV is NOT transmitted through the following bodily:

  • Saliva
  • Vomit
  • Feces
  • Nasal fluid
  • Tears
  • Sweat
  • Urine

There is no cure or vaccine for HIV. However, HIV is treatable and preventable.

Use condoms: If you are sexually active, use condoms during vaginal and anal intercourse. Condoms are highly effective in preventing HIV transmission.
Use clean needles: If you inject drugs, use new, sterile needles. If you don’t know where you can get them, contact us and we will support you in this.
Discuss sexual histories: Knowing the HIV status of your partner or partners will enable you to take steps to prevent transmission, like using condoms.
Get tested for other STIs: having a sexually-transmitted infection (STI)—such as Chlamydia, gonorrhea or syphilis—can increase your risk of becoming HIV positive

Here’s how you can minimize your risk for infection:

Use condoms: If you are sexually active, always use a condom during vaginal and anal intercourse. Condoms are highly effective in preventing HIV transmission.

Use clean needles: If you inject drugs, use new, sterile needles.

Discuss sexual histories: Knowing the HIV status of your partner or partners will enable you to take steps to prevent transmission, like using condoms. About 25% of people in the U.S. who are infected don’t know it. Get tested together

Have sober sex: If you are drinking or taking drugs, you are less likely to practice safer sex and use condoms. If you feel like you may have a drug or alcohol, seek help.

Get tested for other STDs: Having a sexually-transmitted disease (STD)—such as Chlamydia, gonorrhea or syphilis—can increase your risk of getting infected with HIV. Many STDs do not have obvious symptoms. Get tested for free in your area.

Abstain or have fewer partners: Having fewer sexual partners will decrease your risk for contracting HIV or other STDs.

The symptoms may vary depending on the stage of HIV infection. Many don’t report feeling ill.

Many people with HIV do not experience any systems until the late stages of the disease. In fact, the virus can live in your body for as many as 10 years – or more – without causing any obvious symptoms. Extreme fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever and wasting syndrome can be some of the symptoms experienced at the late stages –when the disease has progressed to AIDS. These symptoms are most often caused by the opportunistic infections that a weakened immune system has been unable to fight off.

n the first 2 weeks to 30 days after infection—when higher levels of the virus are in a person’s system and he or she is most infectious (or, able to pass the virus on to others)—some may experience severe flu-like symptoms. It’s important to remember that not everyone who gets infected experiences these symptoms.

While HIV infection is a serious disease, it is important to remember that it is very treatable. Many people with HIV and AIDS live long, healthy, productive lives. HIV is no longer a “death sentence.” Since 1995, there have been medications known as anti-retroviral treatment that effectively combat the disease. In fact, the treatment is so effective that some who regularly and consistently take their medications do not even have a detectable level of virus in their system. If you are HIV-positive, there is hope and there is help.

HIV-i ravitakse HIV-nakkuse vastaste ravimite kombinatsiooniga. Seda nimetatakse retroviirusvastaseks raviks (RVR). RVR ei ravi terveks, kuid see hoiab viiruse paljunemise kontrolli all ja te saate elada tervena pika elu. RVR tähendab, et iga päev tuleb täpselt arsti ettekirjutuse järgi võtta HIV-i ravimite kombinatsiooni. Seda nimetatakse HIV-ravi skeemiks. Need HIV-i ravimid takistavad HIV-i paljunemist (viiruse iseenese koopiate tootmist), mis vähendab HIV-i hulka kehas. Kui kehas HIV-i peaaegu ei olegi, on immuunsüsteemil võimalik taastuda ja jälle nakkuste vastu võidelda. Kui olete jõudnud sellesse faasi, on teie viiruskoormus mittemääratav.
RVR on soovitatav kõigile HIV-iga inimestele, olenemata sellest, kui kaua neil viirus on olnud või kui terved nad on. Ravimata jätmisel ründab HIV immuunsüsteemi ja areneb lõpuks AIDS-iks. Kui HIV-i ravida, ei ole see enam surmahaigus ja inimestel on võimalik nautida pikka elu tervetena.

Kui teil on HIV, võite te siiski sünnitada terve lapse. Kui teil diagnoositakse HIV raseduse ajal, tuleb ravi alustada nii ruttu kui võimalik. Kui te juba saate ravi, tuleb teil ravimite regulaarset võtmist jätkata. Teie sündimata last kaitseb HIV-i nakatumise eest platsenta. Sünnitamise ja rinnaga toitmisega kaasneb nakkuse vertikaalse (emalt lapsele) ülekandumise risk. Kuid kui viirus on alla surutud ja mittemääratav, on võimalus selleks palju väiksem.
Kui teie viiruskoormus on mittemääratav, võite lapse sünnitada tupe kaudu ehk loomulikul teel. Kui rasestumise ajal ei ole teie viiruskoormus (veel) mittemääratav, soovitatakse teile tõenäoliselt keisrilõiget. Pärast sündimist saab vastsündinu HIV-i ülekandumise vältimiseks 4 nädalat kokkupuutejärgset profülaktilist ravi ja talle tehakse HIV-test. Tähtis on, et te arutaksite iga sammu põhjalikult oma arstiga.